Israel-Palestine history is marked by decades of struggle, wars, oppression, and the ongoing occupation of Palestine. We trace the roots of this deep-seated dispute, highlighting the significant events that have shaped the region. This history is filled with resistance, resilience, and the unyielding spirit of a people striving for their rights and dignity.

Balfour Declaration

During World War I, Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which was a pledge to establish “a national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine. This declaration became one of the main catalysts for the Nakba – the genocide of Palestine in 1948 – and the subsequent conflict with the state of Israel​​.

Content and Implications

The declaration, issued by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Lionel Walter Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, included a caveat that “nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” However, this statement was in contradiction with previous promises made by Britain to Arabs and the French, and it set the stage for Palestine to come under British occupation without granting independence to Palestinian Arabs.

Why didn't it make sense?

The Balfour Declaration promised a national home for Jews in Palestine, where at that time, Jews made up only about 6 percent of the total population, while the native Arabs constituted about 94%.

Britain had no moral or political or legal right to promise the land that belonged to the Arabs to another people

Avi Shlaim [Israeli-British Historian]

Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration

British Mandate Palestine

The British Mandate system, viewed as a form of colonialism, began to facilitate the immigration of European Jews to Palestine. The mandate aimed to create the conditions for the establishment of a Jewish national home in a territory where Jews were a minority at the time​.

Map of Palestine before British Mandate showing about 94 percent population and land was of Palestinians

Palestinian Opposition

The Palestinian Arabs strongly opposed the Balfour Declaration and the British support for the Zionist project. In 1919, the King-Crane Commission found that the majority of Palestinians were against Zionism. The Third Palestinian Congress in Haifa in 1920 rejected the declaration as a violation of international law and the rights of the indigenous population​​.

Tensions and Revolt

Increased Jewish immigration under the mandate led to tensions and violence between Palestinian Arabs and European Jews. One of the first notable responses was the Nebi Musa revolt in 1920​​.

Allied Powers’ Involvement

The Balfour Declaration was issued with the prior approval of other Allied powers during World War I. The United States and France played roles in supporting the declaration, with France expressing its support for Jewish colonization in Palestine before the issuance of the Balfour Declaration.

Jewish Immigration to Palestine

Between 1920 and 1946, an estimated 375,415 Jews arrived in Palestine, mostly from Europe, according to British records.

Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa, Palestine, in illegal immigrant
                            ship of Theodor Herzl,
Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa, Palestine, in illegal immigrant ship of Theodor Herzl, 1947.
The poster says: "The Germans destroyed our families and homes - Don't you destroy our hopes."
Graph shows about 375,415 Jews arrived in Palestine, mostly from Europe between 1920 to 1946

Palestine before 1948 — Despite heavy tension and conflict within Palestine during British occupation, life and daily commerce continued.

The First Nakba (1948)

The Nakba ("catastrophe" in Arabic) in 1948 marked a period of profound tragedy for the Palestinian people, coinciding with the establishment of the Israeli occupation. It was characterized by brutal massacres, destruction, and mass displacement.

Zionism Emergence

Zionism, emerging in late 19th-century Eastern Europe, envisioned a Jewish state, leading to significant Jewish migration to Palestine. Theodor Herzl's 1896 publication, "Der Judenstaat" ("The Jewish State"), was pivotal in this movement.

UN Plan

In 1947, following the end of WWII and the British decision to end their mandate, the newly formed UN adopted Resolution 181, recommending the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. It was viewed as a Zionist occupation plan because it heavily skewed in favor of the Jewish population, disproportionately allocating approximately 56% of historic Palestine to the Jewish people, igniting tension between Palestinian Arab civilians and Zionists groups.

The Arabs rejected the plan as it was unfair to the native population and irrational at the very least. Additionally, the zionists did not adhere to the proposed UN plan and proceeded to capture the most of the Palestine during the Nakba through barbaric means.

1947 UN Partition Plan Illustrated Map

Early Massacres

Before the official start of the Nakba, Jewish armed groups had already begun the process of genocide. Infamous massacres such as Balad al-Shaykh, Sa'sa', and Deir Yassin, where hundreds of Palestinians were killed, were precursors to the larger-scale atrocities of the Nakba.

Balad al-Shaykh Attack (December 1947)

More than 60 people were killed in an attack by Haganah units on the village of Balad al-Shaykh, which houses the tomb of the martyr Izzeddin al-Qassam.

Operation Nachshon (1 April 1948)

This operation, carried out by Palmach units, aimed to seize territory in the rural plateaus on the western slopes of the Jerusalem mountains. It culminated in the occupation of several villages and the Deir Yasin massacre, where more than 100 men, women, and children were killed.

Deir Yassin Massacre (9 April 1948)

On April 9, 1948, over 110 Palestinians in Deir Yassin were killed by Zionist/Jewish forces in one of the most notorious massacres of the Nakba. Preceded by political and military developments, including a rivalry within the Zionist movement, the massacre involved brutal methods by Zionist forces, including indiscriminate killings and desecration of bodies. Many victims were women and children, and the survivors were paraded through Jerusalem before being executed or killed in the village.

The Establishment of Israel / Apartheid State (14 May 1948)

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was declared, leading to further mass expulsions and killings of Palestinians. Hundreds of Zionist arms groups opened fire at thousands of Palestinian civilians, including women and children, causing great suffering.

Map showing Palestinians are expelled from their land and zionist captured 78% of Palestine in 1948

Al-Tantura Massacre (22 May 1948)

Israeli forces carried out a massacre in the village of Al Tantura, resulting in an estimated 230 deaths. There were instances of extreme violence, including sexual assault — many women were raped and brutally murdered. Recorded testimonies from Jewish soldiers, revealing the extent of these atrocities, have been exhibited, providing firsthand accounts of these events.

Highlights from "Tantura (2022)" by Alon Schwarz, Israeli film director, shows recorded testimonies of zionist soliders

Dani / Lydda-Ramla Massacres (July 1948)

Operations like Dani resulted in the mass killing and expulsion of Palestinians from cities like Lydda and Ramla, in what has been described as one of the largest acts of genocide carried out by Israeli forces.

The Lydda-Ramla Massacre, occurring between July 9 and 13, 1948, happened in two stages: initially during the occupation of the city and subsequently during a mass expulsion operation, considered a significant act of ethnic cleansing by Israeli forces. In one instance, Israeli soldiers opened fire on residents fleeing their homes, leading to corpses piling up in the streets.

Those who sought refuge in the Dahmash Mosque were also shot. Estimates suggest that more than 400 people died within the city, and the total number of deaths, including those during the forced march, approached one thousand.

Al-Dawayima Massacre (October 1948)

Occurring on October 29, 1948, it was one of the major and most horrific massacres during the Nakba. Unlike earlier massacres by Zionist paramilitary groups, this was executed by regular armed forces of the newly established state of Israel. The soldiers of the 89th commando battalion, part of the Israeli army's 8th Armored Brigade, launched an assault from three directions on the village, overwhelming the minimal resistance.

Villagers were targeted in their homes, the village mosque, and a cave in Tor al-Zagh area. Eyewitness accounts describe brutal killings, including the elderly and children. The American consul in Jerusalem wrote in his report that based on the news that had reached him, between 500 and 1,000 Palestinians were killed.

During this period, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced, around 530 villages and cities were destroyed, over 125,000 homes were demolished, and over 15,000 Palestinian civilians were killed, clearly marking a genocide.

Some photos of Nakba

Post Nakba

Following the Nakba in 1948, a significant phase of expansion and consolidation began for Israel, profoundly altering the geopolitical landscape of the region. This period, marked by conflict, displacement, and forced territorial acquisition, set the stage for the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Initial Occupation of Palestine (1948-1967)

Arab-Israeli War (1948-49)

In the wake of the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, Israel established control over 78% of historic Palestine, significantly more than the plan that UN had proposed. This expansion was enforced through military means, often committing numerous massacres. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians became refugees in their own land. Many Arab nations, including Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq, supported Palestine and confronted Zionists armed groups. Despite their efforts, the Zionists forces occupied substantial territories throughout Palestine.

Border Tensions and Murders

The following years saw persistent tensions along Israeli borders, especially with Syria and Jordan. Thousands of Palestinian refugees tried to return, leading to clashes and reprisals. Israel's response was brutal, with estimates suggesting about 5,000 people were relentlessly killed trying to cross the borders from 1949 to 1956.

Qibya Massacre (1953)

One of the most infamous incidents was the Qibya massacre in the West Bank, where Israeli occupation forces destroyed over 45 houses, and a mosque and a school, and killed at least 67 Palestinians. The number of village inhabitants was about 200 on the day of the massacre.

The Israeli occupation forces bombed houses with people inside, leading to tragic outcomes. Among the most heart-wrenching scenes was a woman sitting amidst rubble, under which the small limbs of her six children were visible. Nearby, her husband's body, fragmented by gunfire, lay in the street. This incident encapsulates the harrowing impact of the conflict on civilians.

Suez Crisis (1956)

Israel, alongside Britain and France, invaded Egypt during the Suez Crisis, aiming to topple Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, after the nationalization of the Suez Canal.

The Rise of Palestinian Resistance

Fedayeen Movement

The 1950s and 1960s witnessed the rise of the Fedayeen, Palestinian armed resistance groups aimed to liberate Palestine from zionist occupation and oppression.

As Samu' Raid (1966)

In response to a Fatah attack, Israel conducted a large military attack on the West Bank village of As Samu', killing and wounding numerous Palestinian civilians and demolishing homes.

Some photos of post-Nakba

The Six-Day War (1967)

Disputes over the use of Jordan River water and border cultivation heightened tensions between Israel and Egypt along with Syria. The war began after Israel attacked Egypt on June 5, 1967.

Territorial Gains and Occupation

In the Six-Day War, Israel occupied significant territories including the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula. This expansion in Israeli territory was significant and brought a large Palestinian population under direct zionist cruel control.

Displacement and Demolitions

The war led to the displacement of another 413,000 Palestinians. In Jerusalem, the Moroccan Quarter was demolished to create the Western Wall Plaza, causing further displacement of Palestinian families.


The conflict led to widespread losses among the Arab nations. Egypt suffered between 9,800 to 15,000 killed, Syria had approximately 1,000 to 2,500 killed, and Jordan reported 696 to 700 killed, compared with about 700 for Israel. These numbers include both militants and civilians. And it's reported that around 1,953 Palestinian civilians were also killed.

Post-War Settlement Expansion

Following the war, Israel began establishing settlements in the occupied territories, a move seen as defying international law. This settlement expansion was a significant factor in heightening tensions between Israelis and Palestinians. Jews were landing from various countries, and the Israeli army helped them with arms support to forcefully displace Palestinians and take their homes. This included settlements in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula.

Israeli Military Developments

The occupied Palestinian territories were placed under direct Israeli military control, leading to restrictions on Palestinian movement and civil rights. The continuous expansion of settlements and military occupation led to growing resentment and opposition among Palestinians, setting the stage for organized resistance.

The Emergence of the Palestinian National Movement

During this period, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) emerged as a prominent voice for Palestinian national aspirations. The PLO's increasing influence and calls for an independent Palestinian state gained traction both regionally and internationally. It was more of a politicized struggle, advocating for national and human rights and recognition on the global stage.

Yom Kippur War (1973)

The Yom Kippur War of 1973, also known as the October War, was a significant conflict between Israel, Egypt, and Syria. It began when Egypt and Syria launched an attack on Israel during the Yom Kippur holiday to regain the territories that Israel had seized in the Six-Day War of 1967.

Goals of Egypt and Syria

The President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, had initially sought a limited conflict to reignite stalled peace talks, while the President of Syria, Assad aimed to reclaim the Golan Heights lost to Israel in 1967.

International Involvement and Resolution

The war's turning point came with the involvement of global superpowers - the USSR and the USA, who supplied arms to their respective allies. A significant move by the Arab nations during the conflict was to impose an oil embargo on the US, pressuring it to support a ceasefire. The war ended with the UN Security Council passing Resolution 338, calling for a ceasefire and the implementation of Resolution 242, which demanded Israeli withdrawal from occupied territories.


Although the exact numbers for the Yom Kippur War are not confirmed, it's estimated that 15,000 Egyptian, and 3,500 Syrian died, and 2,521 Israeli soldiers died. Iraq lost 278 killed and 898 wounded, while Jordan suffered 23 killed and 77 wounded.

These casualties are of soliders. The civilian ones are unknown.

Post-War Developments

Post-war, the conflict led to the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel, brokered by US President Jimmy Carter. These accords established peace between the two nations but left unresolved issues regarding Palestinian refugees and the status of Jerusalem. Egypt's peace treaty with Israel resulted in its temporary expulsion from the Arab League and a break in diplomatic relations with other Arab nations. This war, thus, had a profound impact on Middle Eastern geopolitics and the trajectory of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Prelude to the First Intifada

Growing Frustrations

By the mid-1980s, the ongoing settlement expansion, indiscriminate killing of civilians, and lack of progress in resolving the Palestinian issue had significantly increased frustrations among Palestinians.

Local Organizing

Grassroots organizing began to take shape in Palestinian communities, laying the groundwork for a more coordinated and widespread uprising.

Sabra-Shatila Massacre (1982)

The Sabra and Shatila massacre remains one of the most harrowing events in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In September 1982, in the midst of Lebanon's civil war and the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, an unbelievable massacre unfolded in two Palestinian refugee camps, Sabra and Shatila, on the outskirts of Beirut.


The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) had surrounded Beirut as part of their invasion of Lebanon with the aim of expelling the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Despite an established ceasefire and the subsequent evacuation of the PLO leadership and fighters from Beirut, the Israel broke the ceasefire agreement and procedeed to occupy the city, including the neighborhoods encompassing Sabra and Shatila.

The Atrocities Unfold

On 16 September 1982, four months after Israel invaded Lebanon, the far-right Lebanese Phalange militia stormed the two densely populated refugee camps in Beirut. Israeli soldiers were ordered to allow them into the camps and to seal all exits so no one could escape.

For the next 40 hours, they carried out a systematic slaughter of civilians, killing about 3,500 civilians in the camps.

[The dead] were everywhere, in the roads, in the laneways, in backyards and broken rooms … women, young men, babies and grandparents—lying together in lazy and terrible profusion where they had been knifed or machine-gunned to death.

Robert Fisk [Journalist]

In the immediate aftermath, the world was shocked by the scale and brutality of the massacre. Graphic images and survivors' testimonies painted a picture of indiscriminate killing - men, women, and children were all victims of the violence.

Israel's Complicity

The Kahan Commission, an Israeli government inquiry, presented substantial evidence indicating that Israeli military leaders knew a massacre was occurring and yet permitted the Phalangists to continue their assault.

On the second day of the massacre, despite reports of the killing of women and children, then Defence Minister Ariel Sharon referred to the victims as "terrorists" in need of "mopping up," saying “if you don't want the Lebanese to kill them, we will kill them”, suggesting that if the Lebanese forces did not complete the task, Israeli forces would.

The United Nations General Assembly declared the Sabra and Shatila massacre to be an act of genocide, while the United States and Israel stood alone in refusing to condemn it.

The First Intifada (1987-1993)

The First Intifada, which lasted from 1987 to 1993, marked a significant shift in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It was a grassroots uprising by Palestinians in the occupied territories against Israeli zionist occupation.

Outbreak and Nature of the Uprising

Start of the Intifada

The Intifada began with demonstrations and civil disobedience, evolving from passive resistance to more active forms of protest. Palestinian society, including organizations, unions, and the general population, participated in widespread riots and protests.

Tactics and Resistance

Palestinians employed innovative methods of resistance, such as boycotting Israeli goods and stone-throwing on IDF (Israeli Defense Force) vehicles. Refugees in camps became major centers of action, and the resistance won sympathy from Arab and Muslim countries.

Israeli Response and Atrocities

Violent Repression

Israel's response to the uprising was severe, involving killings, deportations, and mass arrests of Palestinian civilians. Universities were closed, and a state of emergency was declared in Palestinian areas.

Escalation of Violence

In 1988, Palestinian resistance escalated, including setting fire to Israeli facilities. The Israeli occupation, meanwhile, faced criticism for allowing Jews to dig a tunnel near Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem, leading to clashes and eventually killings of Palestinians.

Deaths and Human Rights Violations

Israeli forces killed at least 1,282 Palestinian civilians, including about 332 children. Over 100,000 Palestinians were detained, and 18,000 were held under administrative detention for long period without charge or trial, and many were routinely tortured during the Intifada. Additionally, 2,532 Palestinian homes were demolished. On the Israeli side, 60 soldiers were killed.

Introduction to Hamas

Hamas, an Islamic resistance movement, emerged in 1987 during the First Intifada. It grew as a significant political and military force in Palestinian politics. The organization, which has a military wing known as the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, has been involved in resistance against Israeli occupation. They swore to liberate Palestine from the zionist regime.

Oslo Accords

Oslo I and II

The Oslo Accords, comprising Oslo I (1993) and Oslo II (1995), were historic agreements between Israel and the PLO, marking the first mutual recognition between the sides. These accords aimed to establish Palestinian self-rule in parts of the West Bank and Gaza, with a plan for a Palestinian state alongside Israel. Although these accords were forfeiture of Palestinian rights, they were accepted by PLO in a bid to alleviate the prolonged suffering of the Palestinian people.

Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, U.S. president Bill Clinton, and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat

Phased Israeli Withdrawal

The accords called for the gradual withdrawal of the Israeli military from occupied territories and the transfer of authority to the Palestinian Authority (PA), except for final status issues like Jerusalem and settlements, to be negotiated later. However, a final treaty within five years never materialized.

Israel Broke the Accords and Peace Promises

Internal Opposition

The accords faced opposition from right-wing Israelis and settlers who feared eviction from occupied territories by the returning of some lands back to Palestinians. Yigal Amir, an Israeli terrorist settler, assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1995. This assassination was an act of terrorism and a direct consequence of the deep divisions and intense opposition to the peace process within Israel.

Breakdown and Continued Occupation

Israel's ongoing occupation and military presence in most of the West Bank, along with continued raids into PA-administered areas, signaled a slow decline of the Oslo Accords. Following Rabin's death, leaders like Benjamin Netanyahu and Ariel Sharon, who opposed the accords, came to governance, contributing to their erosion.

Accelerated Settlement Growth

Post-Oslo, Israel significantly increased its settlement construction in the West Bank, tripling the pace of building. This expansion was a blatant violation of the spirit of the Accords, undermining the prospect of a viable Palestinian state

Rising Tensions and Failed Talks

The broken promise of the Oslo Accords, coupled with escalating settlement, abuses, and intermittent murders by Israel, fueled Palestinian frustration. The failure of subsequent peace talks, including the Camp David Summit in 2000, exacerbated tensions.

The Massacre in Ibrahimi Mosque (1994)

On February 25, 1994, in Hebron, during the dawn prayer and amidst the overlap of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan and the Jewish Purim holiday, Baruch Goldstein, an Israeli terrorist settler and member of the extremist Kach political movement, launched an attack inside the mosque. He shot and killed 29 Palestinian worshippers and wounded over 150 others.

Eyewitness Account

Eyewitnesses, including Hosni Issa al-Rajabeh and Khamis Qafisha, a retired teacher, recalled the events with vivid details. Rajabeh was present in the mosque and thought the initial gunshots were fireworks for the Jewish holiday. However, he soon realized it was a shooting incident as people around him were hit. Qafisha, on the other hand, noted the unusual absence of the Israeli army during the dawn prayer, despite previous clashes between worshippers and settlers, suggesting a level of complicity or at least negligence on the part of the Israeli forces.

Division of Mosque

The aftermath of the massacre saw the Israeli government imposing strict security measures in Hebron. The Ibrahimi Mosque itself was divided, with Muslim access reduced to around 40 percent of the site, and the remaining 60 percent allocated to Jewish worshippers. This division and the ensuing security protocols, including electronic gates at the mosque's entrances, significantly altered the landscape and religious practice in the area.

The Hebron Protocol and Settlement Expansion

The Hebron protocol, signed in 1997 between Israel and the PLO, further cemented these changes. It divided Hebron into two areas: H1, under Palestinian Authority control, and H2, where Israel retained all powers, including over the Ibrahimi Mosque and the Old City. This division led to a significant presence of Israeli settlers in the area surrounding the mosque, with approximately 700 settlers living in five settlement outposts, altering the demographic and cultural fabric of Hebron.

Possible Israeli Army Assistance

The massacre is widely perceived as a planned act orchestrated by extremist settlers, possibly facilitated through the indirect involvement or acquiescence of the Israeli army, which was notably absent during the massacre. This deliberate act was seemingly aimed at imposing a new reality in Hebron and gaining control over the Ibrahimi Mosque. This event has left a lasting impact on the city and its residents, with many Palestinians still feeling the effects of the tragedy and the subsequent measures that followed.

The Second Intifada (2000)

Ariel Sharon's Visit to Al-Aqsa Mosque

The Second Intifada, also known as Intifada Al-Aqsa, began on September 28, 2000, after Ariel Sharon, then the opposition leader in Israel, made a proactive visit with over 1,000 heavily armed police and soldiers to the Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, a site revered in Islam, sparking immediate conflict.

The Palestinians interpreted this action as a gesture towards the destruction of the Al-Aqsa Mosque to make way for the construction of the Third Temple, a notion deeply rooted in Israeli jews.

Rapid Escalation of Violence

Within days, the Intifada had spread throughout Palestine and into Israel. The Israeli zionist forces attacked unarmed Palestinian civilians leading to hundreds of casualties. Among the victims was 12-year-old Mohammad Al-Dura, whose death was captured on camera, becoming a symbol of the conflict.

Israel's response included the occupation of more Palestinian territories, a move directly in violation of the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords.

Heightening Tensions and Armed Conflict

In October 2000, Hamas declared a "day of rage", intensifying the conflict by fighting and attacking Israeli soldiers. The brave resistance soldiers, seeing intense bombing and massacres of Palestinians, went into Israeli troops while wearing bomb vests and sacrificed their own lives.

Ariel Sharon's Intensified Military Actions

After becoming Prime Minister in March 2001, Ariel Sharon initiated a military operation targeting Palestinian territories. This campaign, justified by Sharon as a measure against "terrorism," appeared to be a targeted bombing of Gaza civilians with no regard for women's and children's lives.

US's Shifting Stance on Arafat

The United States, who's been the biggest supporter of Israel, began to express discontent with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, accusing him of involvement in terrorism. This led to a reevaluation of US mediation efforts and discussions on the Palestinian leadership and its role in the peace process.

US unwavering support

"Were there not an Israel, the United States of America would have to invent an Israel, to protect her interests in the region." — Joe Biden [5th June 1986].

The United States' support for Israel has been a cornerstone of its Middle East policy for decades, particularly since the 1967 Six-Day War. This support encompasses substantial military aid, including advanced weaponry and defense systems like the Iron Dome, as well as robust diplomatic backing, often manifested through the use of veto power in the UN Security Council to defend Israeli interests.

Beyond military and diplomatic arenas, economic assistance and collaborative ventures in technology and agriculture have further solidified this alliance. This relationship, shaped by shared democratic values and strategic interests, has remained a consistent feature of U.S. foreign policy, despite varying intensities and approaches under different U.S. administrations.

UN Security Council Resolution 1397

In 2002, the UN Security Council passed a resolution envisioning two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side. Efforts for a ceasefire and reform within the Palestinian Authority were supported internationally but hampered by ongoing violence by Israel.

Economic and Social Impact

The Intifada had severe economic repercussions for both Palestinians and Israelis. Palestinians faced curfews and work bans, severely affecting food supplies and economic activities, while Israelis experienced economic downturns.

Deaths and Demolitions

Over the course of the Second Intifada, at least 4,973 Palestinians were killed This number included 1,262 children, 274 women, and 32 medical personnel. Additionally, more than 10,000 children were wounded during the five years of the uprising. The Israeli army also demolished more than 5,000 Palestinian homes and severely damaged another 6,500.

Amnesty International reported that the majority of the Palestinian casualties were civilian bystanders.

The Second Intifada also involved significant non-violent resistance by Palestinians, which was often overlooked by mainstream media. This resistance included organized protests against the Israeli military campaign, settlements, home demolitions, and the separation barrier. Despite its predominantly non-violent nature, the response from Israeli forces was overwhelmingly violent and destructive.

The Gaza Massacre: Operation Cast Lead (2008)

Operation Cast Lead, initiated by Israel, began on December 27, 2008, and lasted until January 18, 2009. This 22-day offensive was characterized by heavy military action in the densely populated Gaza Strip. The initiation of this attack from Israel represented another breach in the existing ceasefire, further intensifying the longstanding tensions in the region.

Israeli forces conducted over 300 air and sea strikes during the first week, targeting houses, workshops, public institutions, mosques, and educational institutions.

Ground Invasion

On 3 January 2009, Israel initiated a ground invasion of Gaza. The Israeli troops, supported by artillery fire and fighter jets, entered from the north. The Palestinian resistance, lacking heavy weaponry, bravely faced one of the world's most well-equipped armies. Israel's military tactics included attempts to cut the Strip in two and focused attacks in northern towns.

War Crimes

Indiscriminate Bombing

The aerial and ground assaults targeted densely populated civilian areas, leading to high civilian casualties.

White Phosphorous

Israel's use of white phosphorous, a chemical creating a smokescreen while causing severe burns and organ failure, faced condemnation. Investigations by human rights organizations confirmed the use of white phosphorous by Israeli forces in residential areas, resulting in civilian deaths and injuries. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch reported that this action potentially constituted a war crime, as it violated international humanitarian laws.

Destruction of Civilian Infrastructure

The extensive destruction of homes, businesses, and public infrastructure had a long-lasting impact on the civilian population of Gaza.

UN Mission against War Crimes

A UN Fact-Finding Mission concluded that there was significant evidence of widespread and systematic commission of war crimes. The Mission noted Israel's use of disproportionate force targeted not at combatants but at civilian infrastructure. Allegations of war crimes included the infamous killing of 21 members of the Samouni family and attacks on schools.

Complaints to the Israeli Military Prosecutor

The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights submitted 490 criminal complaints to the Israeli Military Prosecutor but received minimal response. Israel's justice system has been accused of turning its back on Palestinian victims, often extending impunity to its soldiers and officials. Obstacles for Palestinians seeking compensation include prohibitive court guarantees and legislative amendments exempting Israel from liability during combat actions.

UN Security Council Resolution

The UN Security Council called for a ceasefire on 8 January 2009, which was initially rejected by both Israel and Hamas. The war lasted 22 days in total.


At least 1,387 Palestinians were killed with a staggering 82% being civilians, whereas only 13 Israelis died, three being civilians. Israeli human rights organization B'Tselem reported that among the Palestinian casualties, 344 were minors/children and 110 women.

Long-Term Impact

The war severely damaged Gaza's infrastructure and economy. Over 700 businesses were destroyed, resulting in direct losses of about $140 million. The agricultural sector suffered losses worth $170 million, and more than 3,354 houses were destroyed. The total estimated cost of damage in Gaza reached $1.1 billion. Following the war, Israel's continued blockade hampered reconstruction efforts and worsened the humanitarian situation in Gaza.

Fight for liberation vs Israeli response

Whenever Palestinian resistance forces engaged in confrontations with Israeli soldiers, ostensibly in pursuit of ending the occupation, Israel's response disproportionately targeted Palestinian civilians, rather than focusing on the resistance fighters.

Humanitarian Aftermath in Gaza (2009-2012)

Post-Operation Cast Lead, Gaza's humanitarian situation deteriorated significantly:

  • An August 2012 UNRWA report predicted Gaza would be unliveable by 2020 due to declining access to safe drinking water, healthcare, and electricity.
  • Israel maintained control over Gaza's borders, airspace, and coastal waters, with land restrictions limiting Palestinian access to significant portions of agricultural land.
  • The ongoing blockade led to economic hardships, with high unemployment rates and a majority of the population becoming food insecure.
  • Health issues escalated due to unsafe water, malnutrition, and inadequate medical supplies
  • The population density and lack of homes, with only a fraction of destroyed houses being rebuilt, led to poor hygiene and public health conditions.
  • The mental health of Gazans was severely impacted, with increased depression rates and a sense of imprisonment.

Assault on Gaza: Operation Pillar of Defense (2012)

The immediate trigger for Operation Pillar of Defense was a sequence of events beginning on November 10, 2012. On this day, an Israeli military jeep patrolling near the Karni crossing at the Gaza border was struck by resistance from Gaza, wounding four Israeli soldiers. In response to this attack, Israel launched an airstrike in Gaza, resulting in the deaths of four Palestinian teenagers who were playing football in a sports stadium.

After days of rocket fire from both sides, Israel launched Operation Pillar of Defense, marked by significant violence and destruction, against the Gaza Strip. This operation, lasting eight days, resulted in substantial loss of life and raised profound humanitarian and legal concerns.

On 14 November, the Israeli army targeted and killed Ahmed Jabari, the chief of the Hamas military wing, prompting widespread protests. The army also struck 20 other points in the Gaza Strip, including residential areas, alleging the presence of hidden weapons. More than 10 people were killed on the first day, including 11-month-old Omar Misharawi, the son of BBC Video Editor Jihad Mishrawi.

Escalation and Broadening of Targets

Israeli missile strikes continued relentlessly, with Hamas responding with rocket fire into Israeli territories. However, no Israeli fatalities were reported from these counterstrikes. Egypt attempted to mediate a brief ceasefire on November 16, but it did not hold. Israel then expanded its offensive, targeting various areas, including an airstrike that destroyed the offices of Gaza's Prime Minister, Ismail Haniyeh. This move was condemned by international organizations, highlighting the overwhelming casualties and the critical shortage of medical supplies in Gaza.

Significant Incidents and Murders

One of the most devastating incidents was an Israeli naval barrage that killed a 13-year-old girl and her uncle. This operation also saw the destruction of the family home of Jamal Mahmoud Yassin Al-Dalu, resulting in twelve deaths, including five children and two elderly women. Neighbors disputed Israel's claims of the targets' affiliations with militant groups, and human rights organizations criticized these actions as disproportionate and targeting civilians.

Deaths and Ceasefire

The assault resulted in 185 Palestinian deaths, of which at least 120 were non-combatants, and 47 were children. On the contrary, 6 Israeli soldiers died. The operation concluded with a ceasefire announced on November 21, following intense diplomatic efforts. The aftermath of the operation left the Gaza Strip in a dire humanitarian situation, with ongoing Israeli aggression reportedly continuing in violation of the ceasefire terms.

Assault on Gaza: Operation Protective Edge (2014)

Operation Protective Edge, commenced on July 8, 2014, with Israel conducting extensive air raids and artillery strikes on the Gaza Strip, ultimately breaking a ceasefire.

This offensive occurred in a context where Israel attributed the kidnapping and murder of three teenagers in the West Bank in June 2014 to Hamas, a claim that was not substantiated with definitive proof. Hamas staunchly denied any involvement in the incident, asserting that Israel was using the accusation as a pretext for escalating aggression against them.


Phase One: Aerial Assault (8–16 July)

Israeli planes started striking over 1,700 locations in Gaza, including residential areas and command centers. In response, Palestinian resistance rocket and mortar fire continued at a sustained rate. A significant strike on 12 July resulted in 21 Palestinian casualties. By 15 July, over 200 Palestinian casualties were reported.

Phase Two: Ground Invasion (17–31 July)

Israel initiated a ground attack on 17 July in response to Hamas's use of "attack tunnels." The ground invasion involved heavy artillery shelling and incursions, focusing on tunnel threats. The Battle of al-Shuja'iyya was particularly fierce, with Israeli forces employing extensive artillery and air support, notably dropping about a hundred 2,000-pound bombs (i.e., 200,000 lbs of explosives). The attack resulted in at least 65 Palestinian deaths, including women, children, and the elderly, and 288 were wounded.

Phase Three: Hostilities and Final Cease-Fire (1–26 August)

Intermittent hostilities continued, with cease-fires breaking down almost immediately due to ongoing tunnel operations. The Hannibal Directive of Isreal led to the use of extensive force, resulting in at least 160 Palestinian deaths. The conflict persisted with aerial, naval, and ground assaults by Israel, causing significant Palestinian casualties, including an incident that killed 10 members of one family and another at a UN-run school, resulting in 10 deaths and 30 injuries.

International Criticism

Israel's actions during Operation Protective Edge drew significant international criticism for their disproportionate nature and the high civilian death toll.

One of the most contentious issues was the Israeli shelling of UNRWA shelters in Gaza, which occurred between July 21 and August 3, 2014. These shellings resulted in the deaths of at least 44 civilians, including 10 UN staff. An estimated 290,000 people, approximately 15% of Gaza's population, sought shelter in UNRWA schools during the conflict.

The international community, including the UN and various governments, condemned these attacks. The Rafah shelling, in particular, received widespread criticism. Ban Ki-moon, the then UN Secretary-General, called it a "moral outrage and a criminal act," while the US State Department labeled it "appalling" and "disgraceful." Human Rights Watch investigated three incidents and concluded that Israel committed war crimes. The United Nations later released an inquiry in 2015, holding Israel responsible for the deaths of at least 44 Palestinians and injuries to 227 others in these shellings at UNRWA shelters.

Deaths and Damage

The UN reported 2,310 Palestinians were killed, including at least 1,617 civilians and 513 children, with 70% of them under the age of 12. Over 11,100 Palestinians were injured, including 3,540 women and 3,436 children. Roughly one-third of these children will have to cope with disabilities lasting throughout life as a result of their injuries.

The Israeli bombings caused extensive material damage, with 17,800 houses destroyed or severely damaged, and 252 schools and 78 hospitals affected. The total damage cost was estimated at 6 billion euros, with a significant shortfall in international pledges for reconstruction.

On the Israeli side, 71 fatalities were reported, including 66 soldiers and 5 civilians.

Changing Status of Jerusalem (2017)

President Donald Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, increased the tensions between Palestine and Israel, marking a significant shift in U.S. foreign policy and breaking away from decades of precedent.

Global Response

This decision was widely condemned internationally, including at an emergency United Nations Security Council meeting where 14 out of 15 members criticized the move. The decision was seen as undermining the U.S.'s role as a mediator in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process and was followed by a series of U.S. actions perceived as supportive of Israeli interests at the expense of the Palestinians.

U.S. Alters Position on International Law

In the aftermath of this decision, the U.S. also changed its stance on Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem, no longer considering them illegal under international law, a departure from a 1978 State Department legal opinion. This move was heavily criticized by Palestinians and rights groups, who saw it as part of a broader series of U.S. measures against the Palestinian people and their leadership.

Furthermore, under Trump's administration, the U.S. Senate approved the appointment of David Friedman, a supporter of Israeli settlements on occupied Palestinian land, as the U.S. ambassador to Israel.

Cutting off Aid to Palestinians

The Trump administration also cut significant aid to the Palestinians, including funding for UNRWA, the UN agency for Palestinian refugees, and financial assistance to hospitals in East Jerusalem. Other actions included closing the PLO mission in Washington, D.C., and revoking visas for the PLO envoy and his family, signaling a notable deterioration in U.S.-Palestinian relations.

Current status of Jerusalem

The status of Jerusalem remains a highly contentious and complex issue. Today, both West and East Jerusalem are controlled and occupied by Israel.

West Jerusalem is almost-fully colonized by Jews, while East Jerusalem has a significant Palestinian population who face regular discrimination and violence. Palestinians in East Jerusalem also live under different legal and administrative rules than Israeli citizens.

Israel poses the occupation of East Jerusalem as an annexation since 1967, asserting Israeli law, administration, and sovereignty over the east part. This annexation is not widely recognized internationally and is considered illegal by most of the international community.

Annexation is considered illegal under international law if achieved through force or without the consent of the affected population, as it violates the principle of self-determination.

The Great March of Return (2018)

It was a series of peaceful protests along the Gaza-Israel fence beginning on March 30, 2018. It was marked by significant and tragic events, highlighting the deep-seated issues in the Israel-Palestine conflict. This movement, extending over a period of more than a year, concluded on December 27, 2019.

What is the Gaza Strip?


The Gaza Strip, with an area of 365 square kilometers, is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, housing more than two million people. Historically, the area known as Gaza was larger, but it became a strip after Zionist terrorists created the state of Israel in 1948.


In 2007, Israel imposed an air, land, and sea blockade on the Strip, contributing to severe economic and humanitarian crises, and putting restrictions on essential resources like electricity, water, and fuel. The Zionist regime also built a concrete wall around the Gaza Strip, making it nearly impossible to enter or leave since then.

Collective punishment

The United Nations and Amnesty International describe the blockade as a form of collective punishment of the entire population of Gaza, amounting to a war crime and inhumane treatment under international law.

Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza

Economic Impact

The blockade and restrictions have led to the collapse of Gaza's economy. The World Bank reports that 50% of Gaza's population lives in poverty, with youth unemployment exceeding 70%.

Dependency on Aid

Due to the economic collapse and infrastructural damage, Gaza has become heavily dependent on international aid.

Living Conditions

Only 5% of water in Gaza is safe to drink, and the population suffers from high levels of food insecurity. Additionally, electricity availability is severely limited, often to as little as four hours a day.

Protests and Israeli Response


The protests demanded the right to return to ancestral homes from which Palestinians were displaced in 1948 and an end to the Israeli blockade and continuous oppression.

Deaths and Injuries

Israeli snipers fired at the protesters, killing 214 Palestinians, including 46 children, and injuring 36,100 people, including 8,800 children. By the end of 2019, 156 limb amputations were performed, and around twenty-seven people were paralyzed as a result of spinal injuries. Moreover, at least 3 health workers were killed and 845 injured.

Eviction, Conflict, and Deaths (Feb-May 2021)

Demolition in Khirbet Humsa al-Fawqa (February 2021)

Israeli forces demolished the Palestinian Bedouin community of Humsa al-Baqai'a in the Jordan Valley, displacing at least 65 people, including 35 children. This demolition affected their primary livelihood of herding sheep and was the seventh such incident since November 2020. The demolitions left the villagers without shelter in extreme heat and were criticized internationally as violations of international law.

Clashes in Sheikh Jarrah (April 2021)

In Sheikh Jarrah, East Jerusalem, Palestinians faced imminent eviction from their homes, with Israeli courts ruling in favor of Jewish settler organizations. This stemmed from a long-standing legal battle, with settler groups faking that land originally belonged to Jews.

The Palestinian residents, many of whom were already displaced in the past from their ancestral homes, faced forced displacement again, which was viewed as part of Israel's broader strategy of wider occupation and to alter the demographic balance in Jerusalem.

Violence at Al-Aqsa Mosque (May 2021)

Israeli police stormed the Al-Aqsa Mosque, injuring at least 178 Palestinians and hospitalizing 88, during the final Friday of Ramadan. The Israeli police fired rubber-coated steel rounds, stun grenades, and tear gas at Palestinian worshippers including women and kids.

Many videos of Israeli police beating women were recorded and condemned internationally, ascertaining that Israel lives on terrorism and afflicting pain on innocent civilians.

Widespread Protests and Riots

Following the events in Sheikh Jarrah and Al-Aqsa Mosque, widespread protests and riots occurred globally. Pro-Palestine solidarity marches demanded sanctions and a military embargo against Israel.

Conflict (May, 2021)

The conflict was precipitated by two key events in East Jerusalem: the eviction of Palestinian families in Sheikh Jarrah and Israeli police violence at the Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Faced with ongoing Israeli actions against Palestinian worshippers at the Al-Aqsa Mosque, including violent and aggressive measures impacting women and children, Hamas demanded Israel withdraw its security forces from the area. When this demand was not met, Hamas launched rockets into Israeli territories.

Israeli bombardment on Gaza

The Israeli military launched an extensive airstrike campaign against the Gaza Strip for consecutive 11 days. The strikes were reported to be the most intense since the 2014 conflict. Severe loss of Palestinian lives were witnessed. Moreover, key infrastructures, including residential buildings and media offices, were hit, demolishing about 1,800 residential units and damaging at least 14,300 other units.

Destruction of Hanadi Tower and Al-Jalaa Building

Israeli forces bombed and destroyed the 13-story residential Hanadi Tower and the Al-Jalaa building in Gaza City, which housed more than 60 residential apartments and several media offices, including Al Jazeera and The Associated Press. This act was condemned by the affected media outlets as an attempt to hinder journalistic efforts and was viewed as a serious escalation.


A ceasefire, mediated by Egypt, was reached after 11 days. However, it left unresolved the deeper issues at the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including the status of East Jerusalem and the ongoing Israeli occupation.


In May 2021, at least 287 Palestinians were killed by Israeli aistrikes and forces:

Gaza: 256 Palestinians, including 66 children and 40 women, were killed. Additionally, more than 1,900 others wereinjured.

West Bank: 31 people were killed.

Killing of Journalist Shireen Abu Akleh (May 2022)

Israeli forces shot and killed veteran Al Jazeera journalist, Shireen Abu Akleh, on 11 May 2022, while she was covering a military raid in the Jenin refugee camp. Her death caused an international outcry and led to calls for an investigation by the International Criminal Court.

Israel forces attacked at the funeral

Attacks on Gaza (Aug 2022)

Israeli warplanes attacked the Gaza Strip for three days, killing 49 Palestinians, including 17 children. The attack followed the arrest of Bassam al-Saadi, a Palestinian Islamic Jihad leader, in the West Bank. Following the arrest, Israel closed its crossings into Gaza, including the Karem Abu Salem commercial crossing, which blocked the entry of fuel for Gaza's only power plant.

By initiating this attack, Israel broke the ceasfire once again.

Growth of Armed Palestinian Groups

In response to Israel's actions, several small armed Palestinian resistance groups emerged in the West Bank, particularly in Jenin and Nablus. These groups clashed with Israeli forces and carried out attacks against Israeli military soldiers at checkpoints.

Campaign "Break the Wave"

Israel launched another operation in continuation of its ethnic cleansing of Palestinians, one of the "mowing of lawns" operations, called "Break the Wave" involving near-daily raids, mass arrests, and killings in the West Bank, especially in Jenin and Nablus. Israeli forces killed at least 170 Palestinians in these operations, including more than 30 children, and injured at least 9,000 others.

The term "mowing the lawn" is a phrase used by some to describe Israel's military strategy towards Gaza, particularly relating to periodic large-scale military operations or airstrikes. Critics argue that this strategy is part of a broader approach to maintain control over the Palestinian population and territory.

Notably, during these operations, heavy number of indiscriminate bombing and civilian casualties are witnessed. People with Huamnitarian aspects see these as a form of systematic ethnic cleansing.

Jan-Aug 2023: Non-stop Occupation and Oppression

Formation of a Far-Right Government in Israel

Israeli parliamentary elections resulted in the formation of a far-right government. Controversial figures in this government have been known for their incitement of violence against Palestinians and have expressed intentions to deepen illegal Israeli settlement building in the West Bank.

Increase in Settler Attacks

Attacks by Israeli settlers against Palestinians in the West Bank became more frequent and coordinated. The UN noted an increase in settler violence facilitated by Israeli forces, leading to the death of numerous Palestinians and terrorizing communities.

Jan-Aug, 2023:

  • About 500 Palestinians had been killed by Israeli forces in the occupied West Bank and Gaza.
  • The United Nations highlighted the escalating violence being fueled by the expansion of illegal Israeli settlements, demolition of Palestinian homes, operations by Israeli forces in Palestinian-administered areas of the West Bank, and attacks by Israeli settlers on Palestinian villages.
  • France condemned the continuing Israeli demolitions of Palestinian homes and infrastructure, including a school in the occupied West Bank's Ramallah region, financed by European donors.
  • According to Anthony Dworkin, a senior policy fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations, there's strong evidence that Israel committed war crimes in its attacks on Gaza. He highlighted violations of international humanitarian law, such as attacks causing disproportionate civilian harm and targeting civilian infrastructure like water tanks, power plants, and fishing vessels.
Illustrative map showing how Israel stole Palestine land. Palestine map over decades since 1948.
Palestine map over decades (Click on photo to enlarge)

The Israel-Hamas War in Gaza (October 2023)

CONTINUING Last updated on: 27 Jan, 2024

Context and Outbreak

On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched a military operation called "Operation Al-Aqsa Flood" into Israeli territory, marked by the firing of thousands of rockets, most of which were intercepted by the Iron Dome. This unprecedented attack, which took Israel by surprise, led to the death of at least 460 combatants i.e. soliders and police, and the capture of dozens of Israeli hostages.

An Israeli soldier's testimony raises questions about whether IDF fired on their own civilians under the "Hannibal Protocol" on October 7. Moreover, it is said that several armed settlers initiated gunfire against resistance fighters, leading to a confrontation. As a result of this clash, there were casualties among the settlers.

Why did Hamas attack?

Mohammed Deif, the Hamas military commander, regarding the attack, said: "This is the day of the greatest battle to end the last occupation on Earth"

This statement reflects Hamas' perspective on the conflict, characterizing it as a significant battle to liberate Palestine from the brutal occupation.

Israel's Actions and Atrocities

In reply to the Hamas attack on October 7th, the Israeli forces dropped thousands of bombs on Gaza indiscriminately, leveling several parts of Gaza, instead of fighting Hamas fighter-to-fighter through ground invasion. Here are some of the main assaults:

  • 65,000+ tons of bombs: Israel has dropped over 65,000 tons of missiles and bombs on Gaza Strip, that's about 178 tons per km2, 3 times more than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
  • Loss of Life: At least 33,175 Palestinian civilians have been killed, including 13,000 children and 8,400 women. Additionally, at least 75,886 people are injured, with more than 75% being children and women. More than 8,000 people are missing.
  • Bombing of Al-Ahli Arab Hospital: Israel bombed Gaza's oldest hospital, Al Ahli Arab, on the 17th of October, 2023, killing nearly 500 people marking the highest death toll of any single incident in Gaza during the genocide. The victims were mostly displaced people seeking shelter in the hospital. On the day of the strike, the hospital was overwhelmed with about 1,000 to 3,000 people, as it and other medical facilities in Gaza had been crammed with casualties beyond their capacity since the Israeli airstrikes began.

    The bombing was denounced by world leaders, with strong statements from Middle Eastern countries. Jordan canceled a planned summit with U.S. President Joe Biden in response to the incident. Egyptian President, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, condemned Israel's bombardment of the hospital. Saudi Arabia also issued a firm statement condemning the attack.
  • Destruction of Healthcare Facilities: 15 out of 36 hospitals in Gaza are partially functional, and several of them, including Al-Quds and Al-Shifa, faced severe crises. They ceased operations due to a lack of fuel and the cutting off of electricity by Israel.
  • Journalist Murders: A tragic highlight of this assault is the death of about 100 Palestinian journalists and media workers, making this period the deadliest for journalists since records began in 1992. Moreover, at least three Lebanese journalists were also killed.
  • Collective Punishment: Israel stopped the entry of water, electricity, fuel, and aid into Gaza, exacerbating the crisis. 9 out of 10 people go without food for the whole day. The UN denounced this as a form of collective punishment.
  • The Second Nakba: On November 10, intense bombing and armed pressure by Israel resulted in the displacement of approximately 200,000 Palestinians within Gaza from the north to the south. Overall, since October 7, the conflict has led to the displacement of over 1.6 million people from their homes. This mass displacement significantly strained the already fragile humanitarian situation in the region.

    The displacement of Gazans is especially poignant considering the historical context. The majority of Gaza's population are refugees or descendants of refugees who were forcibly expelled from their ancestral homes during the founding of the apartheid state of Israel in 1948. This recent displacement reignited a painful sense of déjà vu for many Gazans.

    This migration was characterized by large groups of people, including families with children, the elderly, and those with disabilities, who fled on foot with minimal belongings, often waving white flags as a sign of their civilian status. Multiple videos have confirmed that Israeli soldiers fired at civilians, including those fleeing barefoot from the north waving white flags.
  • See the horrors of Gaza through photos and videos

Genocidal Intent of Israel

Below are several statements made by current and former members of the Israeli government after October 7, which compellingly indicate an intention towards the ethnic cleansing of Palestinians, rather than a focused engagement with resistance fighters. These statements highlight a disregard for the civilian population in Gaza, underscoring a lack of concern for the lives of women and children:

It's also crucial to highlight that, despite the absence of Hamas in the West Bank, Israeli forces have reportedly killed 340 Palestinians, including at least 84 children, and injured 3,949 people there from Oct 7 to Jan 10. This raises serious questions about the targets of these operations, given that Hamas, often cited as a primary reason for Israeli military actions, does not have a presence in the West Bank.

International Response and Criticism

Global Condemnations

The international community, including countries: Iran, Russia, China, UAE, Indonesia, and Brazil, condemned Israel's military aggression and called for a ceasefire.

Human Rights Concerns

Human rights organizations and international bodies, including Amnesty International and the International Criminal Court, have been vocal about the need to investigate potential war crimes committed during this period, especially concerning deliberate civilian killings and indiscriminate attacks.

Gaza is the most dangerous place in the world to be a child... I am furious that children recovering from amputations are bombed and killed in Nasser hospital. I am furious that more children, hiding somewhere, have limbs blown off every day

James Elder [UNICEF spokesman]


Below is a rough timeline since October 7:

    Week 1 (7-13 October)
  • Deaths and Displacement: By the end of the first week, Israel bombed 2,808 people, including 853 children and 936 women. Over 10,000 people were wounded, and more than one million were displaced within Gaza.
    Week 2 (14-20 October)
  • Siege and Bombing Campaign: Israel's intense bombing campaign pushed Gaza toward a humanitarian catastrophe. The Israeli Defense Force dropped bombs equivalent to a quarter of a nuclear bomb, primarily targeting civilians and residential infrastructure.
  • Humanitarian Crisis: Israel stopped the entry of food, water, electricity, fuel, and aid into Gaza, exacerbating the crisis. The UN denounced this as a form of collective punishment.
  • Rise in West Bank Violence: In the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem, Palestinians faced unchecked violence from Israeli settlers and soldiers, with more than 59 Palestinians killed in 10 days.
  • Bombing of Hospital: Israel bombed Al-Ahli Arab Hospital, the oldest in Gaza, killing nearly 500 people, marking the highest death toll of any single incident in Gaza during the genocide.
  • Bombing of Church: Israel bombed the Church of Saint Porphyrius in Gaza, the oldest in the area, resulting in the tragic loss of at least 18 lives.
    Week 3 (21-27 October)
  • Israeli Emergency Government: Israel declared war officially and formed an emergency government, including former generals and defense ministers.
  • Prisoners of War: Around 200 soldiers and civilians were believed to have been taken as prisoners of war by Palestinian groups.
  • Continued Violence in Occupied Territories: Palestinians in Jerusalem faced aggressive police checks and crackdowns on protests.
    Week 4 (28 October - 3 November)
  • Gaza Under Total Siege: The Israeli army completed the siege of Gaza City and expanded its air and ground attacks. Nearly 10,600 people had been killed. Basic supplies were running low for Gaza's residents due to the siege.
  • Healthcare Crisis: The situation in Gaza's hospitals worsened, with facilities running out of beds and medical supplies. Several hospitals, including al-Shifa Hospital, faced critical challenges
    Week 5 (4-10 November)
  • International Criticism and Diplomacy: Various international leaders and organizations, including Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and the US State Department, discussed the need for humanitarian aid and the urgency to de-escalate tensions, but calls for a ceasefire remained off the table.
  • Rising Tensions in the West Bank: Israeli forces carried out raids and attacks in the West Bank, leading to additional Palestinian casualties and arrests.
    Week 6 (11-17 November)
  • Continued Fighting and Allegations of Genocide: Critics accused the Netanyahu government of genocidal intent, citing collective punishment, and forced displacement.
  • Casualties continued: The death toll continued to rise, with thousands killed and wounded, and widespread displacement and destruction across Gaza.
    Week 7 (18-24 November)
  • Gaza Under Continued Assault: The Israeli military bombed a UN school, killing at least 27 people, ahead of an expected truce and the release of captives and prisoners. In the West Bank, Israeli forces killed eight Palestinians, including a child, bringing the total number of Palestinians killed in the West Bank to 239 since October 7. Five were killed in the city of Jenin, and three others in different parts of the West Bank.
  • Siege and Humanitarian Crisis: The United Nations World Food Programme warned of the risk of immediate starvation in Gaza, with only 10 percent of necessary food supplies entering the enclave. Israeli strikes had targeted bakeries and wheat mills in southern Gaza, severely limiting flour production.
  • Healthcare System Collapse: The Israeli army continued its presence at Gaza's largest medical facility, al-Shifa Hospital, for three days. They fired at nurses and arrested the director of the hospital, Mohammad Abu Salmiya. All of the patients were forced to move north, many in critical condition.
    Week 8 (25-26 November)
  • Continued Military Operations: Israeli forces carried out a drone strike in Jenin, killing three Palestinians. During a raid at the Ibn Sina Hospital in Jenin, one of the largest medical facilities in the Palestinian territories, Israeli forces arrested two paramedics and ordered the hospital's evacuation, causing further damage to infrastructure.
  • Agreement for Truce: A four-day truce was agreed between Israel and Hamas. This period followed extensive bombardment of Gaza by the Israeli army, resulting in significant casualties and destruction.
  • Truce Conditions: The truce involved both sides agreeing to a pause in fighting. As part of the agreement, Hamas consented to release 50 civilian women and children, while Israel agreed to release 150 Palestinian women and children held captive in its prisons. The deal was expected to allow increased humanitarian aid flow into Gaza.
  • Mediation and International Involvement: Qatar mediated the truce, in coordination with the US and Egypt.
  • Uncertainty and Military Presence: Despite the truce, Israeli forces reportedly injured 7 Palestinians, and drone activity was observed over Gaza, raising concerns about the truce's stability.

Since October 7, at least 33,175 Palestinian civilians have been killed, including 13,000 children and 8,400 women. Additionally, at least 75,886 people were injured, with more than 75% being children and women. More than 8,000 people are missing.

Stat last updated on: 7 April, 2024

Some photos from Gaza Genocide (2023)

There are thousands of distrubing and graphic photos and videos but are not posted here due to copyright. Visit this page to get a glimpse of the horrors of Gaza genocide.

All the deaths and casualties mentioned in this article are of civilians, except explicitly stated as soldiers.

21st November, 2023

Over 8,200 Palestinians are held captive in Israeli prisons, including women and children, many subjected to solitary confinement, torture, and sexual assault.

Terrorism, Occupation, Ethnic Cleansing

Overall, more than 96% of those killed, injured, arrested, and affected were innocent Palestinian civilians

Last updated on: 27 Jan, 2024

This article is compiled based on research and data provided by various credible sources including but not limited to the the United Nations, NGOs, and top news agencies.

Some of the sources used to research and collect information include:

United Nations
Israeli army
Palestinian Ministry of Health
Humans Rights Watch
Land Research Centre in Jerusalem
Euro-Med HRM
Al Jazeera
Anadolu Ajansi
Wikipedia (including various sources)

Many sources included sub-sources. A very few of them are mentioned below:

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